[20] Saint Augustine took a stand against her continuing presence, in the City of God: "How, therefore, is she good, who without discernment comes to both the good and to the bad?...It profits one nothing to worship her if she is truly fortune... let the bad worship her...this supposed deity".
The Wheel appears in many renditions from tiny miniatures in manuscripts to huge stained glass windows in cathedrals, such as at Amiens. When Kichijōten replaces Fukurokuju, and Daikoku is regarded in feminine form,[4] all three of the Hindu Tridevi goddesses are then represented among the seven Fukujin. The Seven Gods of Fortune are often depicted all together on a ship called Takarabune (宝船; lit. It is known that these deities have their origins in ancient gods of fortune: from the Indian Hinduism (Benzaiten, Bishamonten, Daikokuten); and from the Chinese Taoism and Buddhism (Fukurokuju, Hotei, Jurojin)[citation needed], except for one (Ebisu) who has a Japanese ancestry. [12] She is functionally related to the god Bonus Eventus,[13] who is often represented as her counterpart: both appear on amulets and intaglio engraved gems across the Roman world. Cults to Fortuna in her many forms are attested throughout the Roman world. 'The Oxford Classical Dictionary' (Oxford, New York), 606. Shortly after a famous artist of the time, Kano Yasunobu, was ordained to portray these gods for the first time ever. "Treasure Ship"), which, according to tradition, they ride to arrive in every town on New Year's Eve to distribute gifts to those who are worthy. He is depicted as a fat, smiling, bald man with a curly moustache. When she does appear as part of the group she replaces Jurōjin, whose attributes can be seen as included in those of Fukurokuju. She was also a goddess of fate: as Atrox Fortuna, she claimed the young lives of the princeps Augustus' grandsons Gaius and Lucius, prospective heirs to the Empire. From the period of the gods Izanami and Izanagi, Ebisu (恵比寿) is the only one whose origins are purely Japanese. [1], Daikokuten (大黒天) is the god of commerce and prosperity, and he is sometimes considered the patron of cooks, farmers and bankers, and a protector of crops. Fortuna is often depicted with a gubernaculum (ship's rudder), a ball or Rota Fortunae (wheel of fortune, first mentioned by Cicero) and a cornucopia (horn of plenty). In Arabic astrology, this and similar points are called Arabian Parts. Hotei was a Zen priest, but his appearance and some of his actions were against their moral code: his appearance made him look like quite a mischievous person and he had no fixed place to sleep. When she was adapted from Buddhism, she was given the attributes of financial fortune, talent, beauty and music among others. Excluding Ebisu, six of the Seven Lucky Gods have originated in Indian and Chinese myths and folklore, and have later entered Japanese lore through Chinese influence starting from the 6th century AD. The Japanese began to believe in Hotei during the Edo era. Lady Fortune is usually represented as larger than life to underscore her importance. It represents an especially beneficial point in the horoscopic chart.
Narducci, Emanuele, Sergio Audano and Luca Fezzi (edd. ... Whatever Fortune has raised on high, she lifts but to bring low. [9] Fortuna Primigenia of Praeneste was adopted by Romans at the end of 3rd century BC in an important cult of Fortuna Publica Populi Romani (the Official Good Luck of the Roman People) on the Quirinalis outside the Porta Collina. These gods have been recognized as such for over a thousand years. It is now common to see his figure in restaurants where fish is served in great quantities or in household kitchens. The wisdom of the world remains written in its pages. He is the protector of those who follow the rules and behave appropriately.

She is mostly not included, however. The ubiquitous image of the Wheel of Fortune found throughout the Middle Ages and beyond was a direct legacy of the second book of Boethius's Consolation. Kichijōten (吉祥天), goddess of happiness, fertility, and beauty based on the Hindu goddess Lakshmi, is sometimes found depicted among the Seven Lucky Gods. He also acts as the protector of holy sites and important places and holds a spear in his right hand to fight against the evil spirits. Fortune makes her appearance in Carmina Burana (see image). He is the god of fortune in war and battles, also associated with authority and dignity. It is said that the Buddhist priest Tenkai selected these gods after speaking with the shōgun he served, Iemitsu Tokugawa, at the order of seeking whoever possessed the perfect virtues: longevity, fortune, popularity, sincerity, kindness, dignity, and magnanimity. Sails swollen with favouring breezes fear blasts too strongly theirs; the tower which rears its head to the very clouds is beaten by rainy Auster. This god is characterized by his smile, by his short legs and by the hat on his head. He blessed the Chinese, and they nicknamed him "Cho-Tei-Shi" or "Ho-Tei-Shi", which means ‘bag of old clothes’. Roman writers disagreed whether her cult was introduced to Rome by Servius Tullius[5] or Ancus Marcius.

Fortune would have many influences in cultural works throughout the Middle Ages. The reason why the Japanese have such great respect for this god comes from a legend that says that, before the Zen Buddhism arrived to Japan, an alternative Buddhist thought was extended by a priest of dubious aesthetic, who actually was a manifestation of Miroku. During the course of their history, the mutual influence between gods has created confusion about which of them was the patron of certain professions. Greene, E.M., "The Intaglios", in Birley, A. and Blake, J., 2005, Vindolanda: The Excavations of 2003-2004, Bardon Mill: Vindolanda Trust, pp187-193, Selma Pfeiffenberger, "Notes on the Iconology of Donatello's Judgment of Pilate at San Lorenzo". In ancient times, these gods were worshipped separately, but this rarely happens today – only when it is required for the god to act on behalf of the applicant.